University of David
A year after this suggestion of cancellation, a triangular number of physicists published three relativistic versions of Anderson’s mechanism for the creation ofmassive vector bosons: Peter Higgs, whose paperwas received by Physics Letters in July 1964; François Englert and Robert Brout,whose paper, the first of the three, was received by Physical Review Letters in June 1964; and Gerald Guralnik, Carl Richard Hagen, and Thomas Kibble, whose paper was received by Physical Review Letters in October 1964. These papers set forth a process, now called the Higgs mechanism,1 by which particles acquire mass. When applied to EWT, the idea is that, at sufficiently high energy, symmetry is unbroken and all gauge bosons are massless. When condensation causes the electroweak symmetry to become hidden, the W± and Z0 bosons absorb (or “eat”) the Nambu-Goldstone bosons, acquiring mass in the process. Additionally, a massive scalar boson, known as the Higgs boson, emerges from the process. So many bosons! The massless particle to which this reviewrefers as the Nambu-Goldstone boson ismore frequently called the Goldstone boson. As Goldstone observed (and Close pinpoints), the equations of his 1961 paper give rise to a second scalar boson, but “the other Goldstone boson,” as Close wryly describes it, is the massive particle now known as the Higgs boson.